Historical and modern records of the Glow Worm in Nottinghamshire
 
Over ten years ago, Dilys and myself made numerous public appeals via the mainstream media and social media, for any old, or recent records of the Glow Worm Lampyris noctiluca (Linnaeus, 1758).

Our efforts drew a blank, so in a further attempt to get more dots on the map we were in the process of constructing, we asked both the UK's national recorder for Glow Worms Keith Alexander and Robin Scagell of the UK Glow Worm Survey, for any records they held for VC56 Nottinghamshire. Appreciatively, we had immediate responses from both, although in the end gained only a handful of old records.

In June 2012, Nottinghamshire's coleoptera recorder at the time, sent us those records held by the Nottinghamshire Biological and Geological Records Center at Wollaton Hall. This did give us a few more locations and was helpful in confirming what a some of us had already suspected, that the Glow Worm has always been largely restricted to of central Nottinghamshire.

The Glow Worm's Nottinghamshire distribution and the NGWS

We had automatically assumed that many years ago, the Glow Worm had been a familiar sight to generations of children. We were obviously wrong. Working at the time as a care support worker, I had asked everyone I ever visited, whether they had seen Glow Worms and I must admit to being more than a little surprised when none of them said they had ever seen one.

So with most of the records we had collected dating back to the 1990's or earlier, we formed the Nottinghamshire Glow Worm Survey (NGWS) in an effort to try and more accurately determine the Glow Worm's status in VC56 Nottinghamshire. In 2008, four years before the formation of the NGWS in 2012, our knowledge of the Glow Worm's distribution still relied more on what we thought, rather than what we actually knew. Overall, we realised that we knew little more about the distribution of the Glow Worm in Nottinghamshire, than Victorian naturalists had some 100 years previous.

We didn't even know whether the Glow Worm had actually declined in the county. In 2008, there was certainly a lack of recent (modern) records from many of its known sites, but we didn't know whether or not this was genuine decline, or just a lack of recording effort. It turned out to be the latter at some sites, but the former at many.

 
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The main problem was that no one had spent time in the field recording Glow Worms, or if they had indirectly seen Glow Worms while looking for Nightjar, then they weren't reporting them. So a handful of other Glow Worm enthusiasts and ourselves started going out to known sites, checking other potential sites and recording any Glow Worms we found. The NGWS was able to confirm that Glow Worms were still present at a number of known sites and a number of new sites were found. Very small Glow Worm populations were often found close to existing sites, yet now distanced enough to be regarded as separate populations in their own right.

Glow Worm decline and getting the message across

Even before the formation of the NGWS and after realising that there was a problem, Martin Dale and ourselves highlighted the plight of the Glow Worm in Nottinghamshire at every available opportunity. But perhaps because Glow Worms were occasionally reported from new sites (often gardens) our continued warnings about the beetle's decline in Nottinghamshire never seemed to be taken seriously. It seemed that negative comments, even when backed up by statistics gained through years of research and study, weren't welcomed.

But the Glow Worm's decline in Nottinghamshire is undeniable and has now been effectively proven, through the efforts of those assisting the work of the Nottinghamshire Glow Worm Survey.

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A large percentage of Glow Worm sites seem to have been lost through various means and the distribution maps show a contraction in range to the Sherwood Forest area. The Glow Worm has no conservation status in the UK, so isn't afforded any protection against the development or clearance of sites, change in land use and inconsiderate site management (it has been known).

The A614 barrier

When the above map showing all of the county's known Glow Worm records, the band of records running north-south through the centre of Nottinghamshire was immediately evident.

Apart from a 1992 Blyth record, there are no confirmed records from areas north of Worksop, east of Ollerton and Nottingham, around Southwell, Retford or Newark. But there is a record near Newark - from Stapleford Moor, which is as close to the Lincolnshire border as it could possibly be, although still just in Nottinghamshire. J.W. Carr in his 1916 book 'The Invertebrate Fauna of Nottinghamshire' does state that 'Glow Worms were reported from the Retford district' (Pegler) but his rather vague statement is unfortunately as much as we know.

But another interesting point is the lack of Glow Worm records anywhere east of the A614 road. Even at Clumber, there are at least two known populations which lie within yards of the road, yet there are no reports east of it. There must be Glow Worms nearby somewhere.

Mercia Mudstones comprise much of the Trent Valley flood plain and is the lowest part of Nottinghamshire. This whole area is depleted of Glow Worm records but for the Carlton, Colwick and Holme Pierrepont areas of Nottingham and Keyworth in the far south of the county. The dot in the very east of the county map is near Stapleford, but by this point, Mercia Mudstone has given way to Lias Limestones.

The map on the right shows all traceable Glow Worm records from within Nottinghamshire, up to the end of 2020 and includes all the county's historical sites. The map on the left shows only those records between 2010 and 2020. The 1km grid squares indicating Glow Worm sites are laid over the county's woodlands and there is an obvious link to woodland, heathland and sites lying on light, sandy soils. The Glow Worm's distribution in Nottinghamshire, is governed as much by geology as anything else, Glow Worms obviously preferring soils other than that found along the Trent Valley. Most presently known sites are still to be found on Sherwood Sandstone, which many years ago would also have been woodland and heathland.

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Nottinghamshire's recorded/known sites

The following list of sites has recently (June 2021) undergone a complete revision and update, which was well overdue after a decade of surveying by Nottinghamshire Glow Worm Survey volunteers.,
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The aim has been to 'clean up' the list and make it easier to reas and up to date. Hopefully this has worked. There are new summaries of the county's various Glow Worm populations (many of which are very limited interms of numbers) and which have over the past ten years, benn found to make up several large complexes in the wider Sherwood Forest area. Recent notable sightings and negative reports (just as important) will be added as they come in.

Nottinghamshire's main areas for Glowe Worms are still Sherwood Forest and Clumber Park. Glow Worms are spread widely within the two areas and some parts are strictly provate and off limits to the general public. Many well spaced, very small populations exist in both areas and these make up rather obvious larger complexes, spread over the whole area. Seven such complexes have been identified, all encompassed within the wider Sherwood Forest area of the county.

But Nottinghamshire does have several Glow Worm sites which are isolated, seemingly forming no part of any complex, yet all except the recently reported Ruddington site in south Nottinghamshire, have geographical and geological links to eachother, as all lie on the dry soils found on Sherwood Sandstone.

The map on the right shows the locations of all Nottinghamshire's Glow Worm sites in the Sherwood Forest and Clumber Park areas. Only the Ruddington site isn't showed. The map clearly illustrates how the various Glow Worm populations are distributed through the wider Sherwood Forest area, becoming confined to areas of forest and heathland remaining after much of the land was given over to agriculture many years ago.

Glow Worms are tenacious beetles and have proved able to survive at low population levels for many years. But the threat they face in Nottinghamshire continues and one of the greatest threats comes from commercial forestry operations. We have worked with Forestry England a number of years ago and to their credit, they did make some effort to protect Glow Worms where felling was to take place.

However, both the felling and timber removal processes are extremely destructive to both habitat and the insect diversity found within that habitat. Survey work undertaken after felling and removal of the remaining Pines at Clipstone Old Quarter in 2019, has revealed that Glow Worms have been almost completely wiped out along some sections and it is believed that any recovery to near previous numbers found in these areas, will probably take several decades.

* Sites with a blue asterisk, have been recorded as (or still are) active since 2010

 
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Sherwood Heath and immediate surround 
Sherwood Heath in a small area of heathland situated next to the A614 at its junction with the A616 and located immediately west of Ollerton village. It is one of a number of new sites which have been discovered since 2008 and holds the record for producing the highest single count of 212 Glow Worms on 04/07/08, pretty much doubling the highest count of any other site in Nottinghamshire. But it has proved to be a great example of why sites need regular surveying, as it has showed considerable variation in Glow Worm numbers, although it has never been surveyed to the degree of Clipstone Old Quarter, but must be worthy of more regular study. Recent years have showed evidence that overall, Glow Worm numbers may once again be increasing there.

Directly adjacent to Sherwood Heath lies Cockglode and Rotary Woods and the sites all run directly on from each other. Cockglode and Rotary Woods are situated west and north-west of Sherwood Heath, forming a border between it and the former Thoresby Pit Top. Glow Worms were found at Cockglode Wood in 2016, but almost nothing is known about the population there. It is thought to be small, but how far the Glow Worm's population extends to the west is still unknown. 
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Sherwood Heath *   SK647675   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   A previously unknown site prior to its discovery in 2008, producing the county's largest single count of 207 females on 27/06/08, later bettered by 212 females on 04/07/08 (Pendleton, T.A. & Pendleton, D.T.).  Other peak counts have been 29 on 25/06/09 and 48 on 05/07/18. Very small numbers of females present most years, with only single females in 2010, 2011 and 2012, but counts may be increasing again.
Cockglode & Rotary Woods *   SK642673   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   One female recorded from this location in 2016. The site was surveyed recently in June 2021 (probably too early in the season) and no Glow Worms were found. However, the habitat of grass heath, scrub and Bracken, remains in the same condition and should still be suitable.
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Budby South Forest complex
Glow Worms are presently known from two areas of Budby South Forest and while these are regarded as being significantly far enough away from each other to be classed as separate populations, although they obviously do form part of a wider population complex over a large area.

Historical sites for Budby from 1929, located at SK625692 and in 1992 at SK627690 (Stocks Wood) and both listed on the UK Glow Worm Survey website, are both in this area and close enough for their slightly different grid references to be put down as minor discrepancies in assigning references from a paper map. Thankfully, modern technology now allows for extremely accurate grid references.

Females recorded from Stocks Wood, were obviously from the same location as the Budby South Forest site reported in recent years as SK624690. This grid reference is centred along a short length of access track and heathland at SK624690. Glow Worms were recorded from this location in 2017 (Pendleton, T.A. and Pendleton, D.T.) and generally small numbers have been recorded annually since, with a peak of 39 females on 01/07/18. This same location had been surveyed once before in 2012, when no Glow Worms were found, so it shows the need to occasionally revisit sites every year or so.

Directly across the road from Budby South Forest (SK624690) is a small, triangular area of roadside verge consisting of grass heathland, Birch and Gorse scrub. A number of years ago the area was used as a layby and car parking area complete with ice cream van, which was well used by the passing public. It was eventually closed as a layby and quickly vegetated over. Regular surveying has found the site produces small numbers of Glow Worms annually, though only larvae have been recorded in a number of years. This population is linked to the Budby South Forest population present across the B6034 minor road and also links that population to those found along the Worksop Road at SK635684 and SK642749, effectively linking these to the Sherwood Heath population almost 2km to the east.
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Budby South Forest *   SK624690   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   Single females (two) and a larva found away from a previously known Glow Worm site at nearby Swinecote Road in 2017. No Glow Worms previously reported from this grid reference, which was surveyed once before in 2012. Location is now believed to be the same site once listed as Budby SK625692.
Budby (Swinecote Road) *   SK627688   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   Three females present at the junction of the A616 and the B6034 on 29/06/12 and four larvae found on 17/08/12. While separate, this same population extends over B6034 on to Budby South Forest and is obviously linked. In 2020, a female was actually found glowing on the side of the road. This site is now believed to refer to the same site previously listed as Budby SK627690.
Ollerton Assarts Plantation *   SK630686   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   Three females located at SK629687 (one) and SK632685 (two) on 29/06/18. This site effectively links up both the Budby South Forest and Swinecote Road populations, to that along the Worksop Road at SK635684 and probably even further east to Sherwood Heath.
Worksop Road (A) *   SK635684   Bull, A. per NBGRC   Located in the Birklands West and Ollerton Corner SSSI, which forms part of the Sherwood Forest NNR. Glow Worms originally recorded here c1995 (Bull, A.). A single female was found at SK635684 on 26/06/12 (Pendleton, T.A. and Pendleton, D.T.) but there were no reports from this location until one found on 21/06/21. Site becoming increasingly overgrown.
Worksop Road (B) *   SK642749   Pendleton, T.A.   Glow Worms always thought likely to occur in this area, but the area had never been surveyed. A female was located at SK642749 on 21/06/21, which effectively links the populations at Budby South Forest, Swinecote Road, Worksop Road (A) and Sherwood Heath.
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Harlow Wood and local area
Harlow Wood has only known as a Glow Worm site since around 2013 and has proved to be one of the best Glow Worm sites in the county, producing consistantly high counts which are bettered only by Clipstone Old Quarter and Sherwood Heath. The site is one of a small number of known Glow Worm sites, which are located in an area of mostly commercial forestry and lying around 4.9km south of the center of Mansfield. Nearby is Nomanshill Wood, but  survey work in 2017, indicated that a former Glow Worm population reported there has probably now died out.
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Harlow Wood *   SK555565   King, J. & King, C.   A previously unrecorded site which has only been known since 2013. It  regularly produces good numbers with recent high counts including 83 in June 2017 and 139 in June 2019 (King, J. & King, C.). In 2017, three Glow Worms were found closer to the A60 (Dale, M. and Michalek, L.) indicating that there are likely to be a number of other small, isolated Glow Worm populations in the area.
Nomanshill Wood   SK540560   Cropper, M.   Glow Worms reported from this site (possibly in the 1990's?) but there seems to be no supporting evidence (date, observer, count etc) and there have been no other records..The site was thoroughly surveyed in June 2017 (Dale, M. and Michalek, L.) and no females were recorded, or males attracted to artificial lures which were placed at a number of locations around the site.
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Clipstone Old Quarter complex
One of the UK's most well known Glow Worm locations, although the story of this site and it's decline over the past five years is something that nature reserve managers across the UK should pay particular attention to.

The Clipstone Old Quarter complex covers a very large area and Glow Worms are found across the site, although over the years there has been definite isolation of a number of populations. Isolation has been to the degree that these could now be considered very small populations in their own right, but as in the case at Budby South Forest, these are part of a considerably larger complex of individual populations. Isolation of these populations has without doubt, been a direct result of forestry operations, with vegetation regrowth after clearfell often rendering some areas unsuitable (heavily shaded) for Glow Worms, forcing colonies to become more concentrated towhere conditions for glowing are more suitable, providing these are within reach. As these populations are become forced over time to contract to a smaller area of suitable habitat, the number of adults lessens and if there is a disproportionate ratio of emerging males to females over a number of years, then it is possible that glowing females remain unmated and the population ultimately dies out. It is by no means unlikely that in a small population of larvae, eight or nine of these could emerge as males.

The Clipstone Old Quarter complex is centered at SK606670, but reaches points to the south at SK606664, SK606675 north and SK602669 west. Fields lie to the east, but the site does extend to a point in the forest at SK610675. These outlying grid references make up the very large recording area where we recorded Glow Worms nightly (in season) between 2009 and 2017, before ill health forced an end to regular recording. Some huge counts were made during that time, with highest numbers coming in 2014 with 101 females on 29/05/14, preceded by 99 females on 28/05/14 and with 99 females again on 30/05/14. Over the years, the site produced some surprisingly large yearly female totals, with 792 females in 2011 topping previous yearly totals of 742 in 2014, 495 in 2013, 599 in 2012, 502 in 2010 and 385 in 2009.

Close by, a number of other small Glow Worms populations have been found over the years and although these should be regarded as separate from the main Clipstone Old Quarter population, together they clearly form part of one large complex. All have proved to produce only small numbers of females on any one night and are very easily missed unless coverage is regular. These populations are to be found at SK598665, SK601666, SK601664 and SK613673.
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Clipstone Old Quarter *   SK606670   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   Recent site maxima of between 85 females on 08/06/09 and 101 females on 29/05/14. A large spread out population showing signs of fragmentation. Felling and timber extraction has almost entirely wiped Glow Worms along several track sections and the grass strip have been left unmanaged for a number of years and is largely grown over by Oak and Birch scrub, Bracken and Bramble, making large areas of the site now both unsuitable and unsurveyable.
Clipstone Old Quarter (A) *   SK598665   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   One female found in the middle of a small path running along edge of the forest, bordering arable fields on 03/07/14. Three females present in the same area on 01/07/15, but it is possible to miss Glow Worms in this area for a number of years with only occasional surveys. One female at this location on 24/06/21 (Pendleton, T.A.).
Clipstone Old Quarter (B) *   SK601666   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   Two females present in 2017 centred at this grid reference. This site effectively links the two locations at SK601664 and SK613673 (given below) with the large population at Clipstone Old Quarter. A single larva recorded here in 2016.
Clipstone Old Quarter (C) *   SK601664   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   A single female found here on 19/06/16, which is the limit of the south-western forest boundary. None recorded from this area since, despite a nember of surveys.
Clipstone Old Quarter (D) *   SK613673   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   A larva found at this previously unknown location in 2018, with a female recorded on 15/06/21.
Blackpool Plantation  *   SK600669   Pendleton, T.A.   Three Glow Worms found at this location in 2021. (Pendleton, T.A.) and thought far enough away from the survey limit of Clipstone Old Quarter, to be considered a potential separate population.  
New Lodge Plantation *   SK605661   Various sources.   Good numbers have been known but unreported, from this private site, located directly across the A6075 Mansfield Road from Clipstone Old Quarter and which obviously forms part of the same complex. Glow Worms reported from here in 1995, but the only recent reports have been of one/two females in 2014 and 2016 (Michalek, L.).
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Sherwood Forest Country Park complex
Despite habitat over much of the Sherwood Forest Country Park looking ideal, and indeed even better than some known Glow Worm sites, the area has a relatively poor Glow Worm population. There were no physically documented records from anywhere within the Country Park until 2009 at SK613684, although there had been anecdotal reports made to the visitor centre staff a number of years before.

Glow Worms had obviously been present at this location for many years/decades and our limited survey work on this population revealed a small number of females annually, although they could be very easily missed if the survey wasn't timed to coincide with peak numbers at nearby Clipstone Old Quarter. A peak count of seven females were recorded on 04/07/13, out of a site total of 21 different females recorded that year. The population was found to cover a wider area than was at first thought, ranging between three points at SK613681, SK611684 and SK613683, and all centred around SK613684.

In 2013, Glow Worms were found at SK611676 on the edge of the Country Park, which effectively provided a link between Glow Worms found in Sherwood Forest and Clipstone Old Quarter. It was expected that survey work would reveal other small populations within the Sherwood Forest Country Park, but despite much effort, none were found until a female was recorded in the eastern end of a belt of mixed woodland (Seymour Grove) dividing the Sherwood Forest CP from Budby South Forest. This discovery subsequently provided a tenuous link between Glow Worm populations at Clipstone Old Quarter, Sherwood Forest CP and Budby South Forest.
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Sherwood Forest CP *   SK613684   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   Single females on separate dates in 2009. One female recorded from this site in 2012 and a peak count of seven recorded in 2013 and three in 2021. Probably produces small numbers annually.
Sherwood Forest CP (A) *   SK611676   Lowe, A.   A previously unknown site adjacent to Clipstone Old Quarter. Five females present here on 02/07/13, but no reports received until three females found on 03/07/21 (Cornish, C. & Banton, I.). The lack of reports has probably been down to the lack of surveying. Presently becoming increasingly overgrown with Birch regrowth.
Sherwood Forest CP (B) *   SK619684   Dale, M. & Sutton, A.   One female recorded from this previously unknown location in Seymour Grove, which borders the Sherwood Forest CP and Budby South Forest on 10/07/19 (Dale, M. & Parry, P.).
Sherwood Forest CP (C) *   SK606682   Pendleton, T.A.   A previously unknown site which was discovered only recently when single females were found at SK606681 and SK606683 on 05/07/21. This location lies a few yards over the western boundary fence line of the Sherwood Forest Country Park and is an area that has been casually checked occasionally since 2008.
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Clumber Park complex
Clumber Park occupies a large area of Nottinghamshire. Glow Worms are found at a number of locations here, none of which seem to have received any consistant coverage over the years. From the data and records sent in by several recorders, Clumber Park's Glow Worms are spread in small populations widely across Clumber's mix of habitats. Its a mix which includes a large waterbody, wetland, areas of heathland, woodland, parkland and agriculture, with the majority of Glow Worms being found within areas of heathland and woodland.

A total of 18 sites for Glow Worms have been reported since the 1990's and most are in need of surveying again. Surveying which has been carried out, has tended to reveal small numbers of Glow Worms (often just one or two) in new areas away from the more traditional locations, which would support the possibility that Clumber has more small populations waiting to be dscovered than are currently known. Well spaced populations favour the western and north-western parts of Clumber Park, with nine locations forming an obvious band running north to south past the Carburton entrance.

At the eastern end of Clumber Park, there are just two reported sites, including the grass verges at the Appleyhead Lodge entrance and a former entrance off the A614 south of the Clumber Hotel. However, in view of the wealth of suitable heathland and woodland habitat at Clumber, there are many areas which would benefit from survey work.
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Clumber Park (A)  *   SK622732   UK Glow Worm Survey   There are records from two locations from this site, listed as Bluebell Hill and which lies some way south of Clumber Bridge. Glow Worms were reported to the UK Glow Worm Survey in 1992 and there were no other reports until two females were recorded in the same area at  SK624732 in 2013 (Glendenning, J).
Clumber Park (B) *   SK616749   McLeish, D.   Glow Worms recorded from two locations within an area of heathland at SK616747 (McLeish, D.) and close to Lime Tree Avenue at SK618750 (Pendleton, T.A. & Pendleton, D.T.) in 2008. This excellent heathland habitat has now been fenced off to allow occasional grazing and give protection to the habitat from damaging use by the public. A recent record of two Glow Worms found at approximately SK617749 (Pendleton, T.A.) on 20/06/21.
Clumber Park (C)   SK620740   Moss, J.G.   An undated record of Glow Worms from a wooded location, almost just north of the recently renovated Clumber Bridge.
Clumber Park (D) *   SK632755   McLeish, D.   Site producing regular counts of up to 40 or 50 Glow Worms near the road crossing at the Hardwick village end of Clumber Lake in the mid-1990's. A maximum of 25 in 2011 (McLeish, D.) is the last report we have.
Clumber Park (E) *   SK614763   Michalek, L.   A previously unknown Clumber Park site along Clumber Road. Two females ound around 90 metres apart here on 17/07/12 (Michalek, L.).
Clumber Park (F) *   SK609758   Harris, T.   Three females recorded from this location in 2016. There have been no other reports.
Clumber Park (G) *   SK619723   Michalek, L.   A single female found at this newly discovered Clumber Park location on 24/06/13 (Michalek, L.).
Clumber Park (H) *   SK629772   Michalek, L.   Glow Worms last recorded in this area of Clumber at Calloughton Wood on Hardwick Top Road back in 2004  (Michalek, L.) but very good numbers were recorded from this location in the 1980's.
Clumber Park (I) *   SK622762   Harris, T.   Over ten females present at this location in 2017. No further reports.
Clumber Park (J)   SK623773   Binding, A. and Binding, A.E.   Glow Worms recorded from this section of the Old Coach Road in 1998
Clumber Park (K) *   SK628755   Glendenning, J.   Two females recorded from this previously unknown area of Clumber Park on 11/07/13 (Glendenning, J.).
Clumber Park (L) *   SK614754   Michalek, L.   Three females found at this location on 08/06/14 (Michalek, L.).
Clumber Park (M)  *   SK616730   Michalek, L.   Another previously unknown Clumber Park site with a single Glow Worm recorded at SK616732 on 24/06/13. 12 females also recorded between SK615733 and SK617727 on 30/06/14 (Michalek, L.).
Clumber Park (N) *   SK649742   NBGRC per Sheila Wright   15 Glow Worms reported from along a section of the Robin Hood Way located just off the A614 opposite Normanton Lane in 1995, but Glow Worms also recorded there 20 years previously. There were no other reports until a brief survey on 19/06/21 (Pendleton, T.A.) produced a single female at SK646740, about 200 metres from this lit stretch of the A614.
Clumber Park (O) *   SK642773   Pendleton, T.A. & D.T.   A maximum of 13 females found along the roadside verges and woodland edge at Appleyhead Lodge on 28/06/08 (Pendleton, T.A. & Pendleton, D.T.). The habitat remains ideal and a female was recorded during a brief survey on 19/06/21 (Pendleton, T.A.).
 
Sherwood Pines complex
Glow Worms have long been known from Sherwood Pines and which for many years, was known locally as Clipstone Forest. The name change to Sherwood Pines seems likely to have been the outcome of a commercial decision after the opening of Centre Parcs Sherwood Forest, providing visitors with a range of popular outdoor activities. A working forest, it is largely given over to commercial forestry under the auspices of Forestry England. Although public with unrestricted access, Sherwood Pines has never been well surveyed for Glow Worms and certainly never with any regularity. It is in need of more survey work, just to evaluate the status of the eight Glow Worm populations which make up this large complex.

Glow Worms here are largely restricted to the southern section of Sherwood Pines, south of both Eakring Road, which in turn lies just north of the former mineral railway line bisecting the whole forest from east to west. Glow Worms have been recorded from a total six locations in this part of Sherwood Pines and from the available records and counts we have, it looks as though all six populations are small, with counts probably rarely reaching double figures on a single night.

The six Glow Worm locations in this part of Sherwood Pines are centred around a population located at SK619605. There have been few reports from any of the known locations since 2013, but a new site was found during survey work in May 2018 (Dale, M. Kulpa, A. & Michalek, L.) but which has recently been found to have suffered badly from fire and now seems unsuitable. As described earlier in the section on Clipstone Old Quarter, these small populations were probably once individually much larger (probably just one large population) which covered a wider area. Sherwood Pines is probably a great example of how isolation of a small invertebrate populations can occur through commercial forestry operations.

The two Sherwood Pines locations found north of Eakring Road are labelled Sherwood Pines (B) at SK608619 and Sherwood Pines (C) at SK613616. While these two locations are well away from those in the southern part of Sherwood Pines, they are also well separated from each other. There have been no reports from either site since 2003.
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Sherwood Pines (A) *   SK616601   Dale, M. Kulpa, A. & Michalek, L.   A previously unknown site which was only discovered as recently as 2018 when 25 females were recorded (Dale, M. Kulpa, A. & Michalek, L.). This site was surveyed again in early June 2021 but was found to have suffered a severe fire and is now believed to be unsuitable for Glow Worms.
Sherwood Pines (B)   SK608619   Forestry England   Glow Worms reported from this location in 2003, by members of the Birklands Ringing Group.
Sherwood Pines (C)   SK613616   Forestry England   An undated report of Glow Worms from this area
Sherwood Pines (D) *   SK614605   Forestry England   An historically known site with Glow Worms believed to be still present. The last report of Glow Worms from this location was of a female in 2011.
Sherwood Pines (E)   SK622606   Forestry England   Glow Worms reported at this site in 2003, by members of the Birklands Ringing Group.
Sherwood Pines (F) *   SK619603   Lowe, A.   Between three and five Glow Worms were noted from this location in July 2013, but no further reports have been received.
Sherwood Pines (G) *   SK619605   Lowe, A.   A single female was present on two dates in July 2013 and a female found close to here at SK620603 (Michalek, L.) in 2018
Sherwood Pines (H) *   SK620608   Lowe, A.   Counts of between five and 11 females were recorded here on several dates in July 2013. No further reports.
             
Thoresby Park complex
Due to Thoresby Estate being private and inaccessible to the general public, very little is known about the Glow Worm populations and sites present on the estate. Over an unknown number of years, Glow Worms have been reported from four locations at Thoresby, but information associated with three of these was obviously witheld by the provider (the Nottingham Biological and Geological Records Center) on account of the law regarding data protection. As a result, the records are largely vague and we have no idea of the dates, let alone any actual Glow Worm counts. The only report it is possible to list, is from the Buck Gates area in 2014 (Walker, M.).
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Thoresby Estate (Buck Gates) *   SK637691   Walker, M.   A single female recorded from this previously unknown site on 03/07/14.
Thoresby Estate (A)   SK642686   Bull, A. per NBGRC   Glow Worms reported from Stilehollow Plantation, which is located just north of the former shooting range at SK642682. There was no supporting information supplied with the record due to data protection, but it should be treated as genuine.
Thoresby Estate (B)   SK641735   NBGRC   Record from an area of forestry on strictly private land. The record was not accompanied by any date, count or observer etc.
Thoresby Park (C)   SK630710   Worrall, L. & Worrall, G.   Glow Worms reported from the site which was formerly the public car park for the extremely popular Thoresby Sunday Market. Following the closure of the market a number of years ago, the site has been returned to grazing and seems unsuitable for Glow Worms, but was included in surveys of the area which took place in June 2017. No Glow Worms were found. 
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Isolated Glow Worm sites known to be either active, or potentially still active (post 2010)
Budby Carr *   SK608705   Pendleton, T.A.   A recently discovered site located well away from the nearest (known) Glow Worm sites. Interestingly, this small site had been surveyed or visited on several occasions over the years, including on 12/06/12, but Glow Worms were never recorded. Three females found at this roadside location on 29/06/21, prove the value of revisiting suitable looking sites.
Duncan Wood *   SK614715   Harris, T.   Another previously unreported site. Glow Worms were recorded from this location some time after 2010, but the exact date is not known. This record provides the first direct link between the Clumber Park populations and those of Budby and Sherwood Forest. Duncan Wood being directly midway between the two. The site was surveyed in July 2015 (Pendleton, T.A. & Pendleton, D.T.) but no Glow Worms were recorded.
Newstead Abbey *   SK540543   Gough, B.   Glow Worms reported from a private, wooded garden in 2010. Parts of Newstead Abbey grounds have been surveyed in the past few years, but results have proved negative and the private nature of this site makes the prospect of further surveys difficult.
Ransom Wood *   SK575595   Cannon, C.   A female reported from this private site in 2015. Ransom Wood lies directly between the Harlow Wood and Sherwood Pines complexes. The site was surveyed in July 2016 (Dale, M.) following a 2015 report, but no Glow Worms were recorded and the record is viewed with a degree of uncertainty
Ruddington *   SK561313   Smith, I.   A newly reported site located along a stretch of the Great Central Railway line at Ruddington, reported to the NGWS in 2020 (Smith, I). Glow Worms were previously known from this site but never reported. A count of nine females here on 26/06/20 (Dale, M. & Parry, P.). This is currently the only active Glow Worm site in south Nottinghamshire, after a former site on a railway embankment at Gotham SK540294 (two females in 1969) was found to be too overgrown and probably unsuitable.
             
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Former sites known to be either lost or unsuitable and now considered extinct
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Annesley (Robin Hood Hills)   SK512547   UK Glow Worm Survey   Large numbers reported here in 1968, but there have been no additional reports. The area was surveyed more recently in 2017 (Dale, M. and Michalek, L.) and no female Glow Worms were recorded, or males attracted to artificial lure. It was also noted that the habitat may have changed, or perhaps deteriorated substantially and become unsuitable.
Blyth (Hodsock Lane)   SK6286   UK Glow Worm Survey   A 1992 record which is listed as Blyth on the UK Glow Worm Survey website, but the grid reference strongly indicates that the record is more likely to have originated from the Hodsock Lane area, south-west of Blyth.
Budby   SK625692   UK Glow Worm Survey   A few recorded in 1929
Budby   SK627690   UK Glow Worm Survey   Site (Stocks Wood) is same general area as the above location. Females were recorded from here in 1992.
Carlton, Nottingham   SK610405   UK Glow Worm Survey   Historical record from 1949. Location is now Greenwood Road and part of a housing estate.
Colwick Woods   SK602398   UK Glow Worm Survey   Glow Worms reported from the railway bank between Colwick Woods and Nottingham Racecourse and seen in most years up to 1970. The site was surveyed twice in 2012 (Dale, M.) and some areas are now inaccessible and the site is thought to have likely become unsuitable.
Cuckney   SK605713   UK Glow Worm Survey   A record from 1929 record. Grid ref centred on what is now cultivated land and unsuitable for Glow Worms.
Edwinstowe   SK620653   Lewis, N. per NBGRC   Several seen in 1995, but it is unclear as to the exact location. Potentially suitable grass verges have been surveyed in recent years, but Glow Worms have not been found. 
Fanny's Grove   SK610709   Statham, B. per NBGRC   One female reported from this site in 1995. Formerly a public picnic area with some suitable habitat, but has become increasingly overgrown in recent years. No Glow Worms were found during surveys on 29/06/12 (Pendleton, T.A. and Pendleton, D.T.) and 23/06/21 (Pendleton, T.A.).
Farnsfield   SK630550   UK Glow Worm Survey   A 1992 record from along Rob Lane. This site was recently surveyed in 2017 (Dale, M. and Michalek, L.) but no Glow Worms were found, despite the habitat looking suitable.
Gotham   SK540294   UK Glow Worm Survey   Two females recorded in 1969. Site believed to be too overgrown and now unsuitable.
Greenacres/Lockwell Hill   SK627591   UK Glow Worm Survey   An undated report, probably referring to a former (now overgrown) farm track through agricultural land situated just north of the A614 and A617 traffic island. It is entirely possible that the record may have actually been from the wooded area at SK630587 (Lockwell Hill) where habitat looks suitable.
Hanger Hill Plantation   SK601695   Lewis, N.   A site reported to us in early 2012. Glow Worms apparently present and recorded here c1995, but none found when surveyed twice on the same date in 2012.
Holme Pierrepont   SK615384   UK Glow Worm Survey   Glow Worms reportedly present on private land adjacent to the A52 pit at Holme Pierrepont in 1992. The site was surveyed in July 2016 (Dale, M.) but no Glow Worms were recorded in a thorough search.
Keyworth (Park Rd)   SK616320   UK Glow Worm Survey   A 1977 record, but this site is now a housing estate.
Kneeton   SK697453   Dale, M.   Glow Worms reported from this previously unkown Trent Valley location in 2008. The area was surveyed in June 2014 (Dale, M. and Parry, P.) and it was found that the site seems unsuitable for Glow Worms.
Lambley   SK630457   Pendleton, B.   Three females on roadside verge on Green Lane in 1944.
Mansfield Woodhouse   SK555644   UK Glow Worm Survey   Another record submitted to the UK Glow Worm Survey in 1992 gricultural land near Marples Avenue. Record listed as 1992.
Oxton (Oakmere Park)   SK612532   UK Glow Worm Survey   Another record from 1977. The site was surveyed in 2012 (Dale, M.) and no Glow Worms were found.
Rainworth   SK6258   UK Glow Worm Survey   A rather vague 1992 record from a location east of Rainworth, where the habitat is purely agricultural.
Ravenshead   SK5656   UK Glow Worm Survey   A 1992 record reported from a private garden.
Stapleford Moor   SK856586   Smith, G.   15 females from along a ditch adjacent to woodland on 14/07/90. This is the county's most easterly and isolated Glow Worm sites and is directly on the Nottinghamshire border with Lincolnshire. Recent satellite imagery of the grid reference, suggests that this site could potentially still be active and it is really in need of surveying. It has been included in this section, purely on the basis that there have been no other records over in 30 years.
Worksop (Lady Lea Quarry)   SK562794   NBGRC   Glow Worms reported as being present at this site, but the record is not accompanied by any additional information. The site was visited in March 2021 and seemd generally unsuitable for Glow Worms, as much of the site is heavily shaded and overgrown.
 
The Nottinghamshire Glow Worm Survey 2021

The Nottinghamshire Glow Worm Survey is an ongoing project. If you would like to help and join in the survey, click the banner below for more information and how to contribute. Or if you know of any Nottinghamshire sites for Glow Worms, simply send any records or details directly to us.

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